Aim: To evaluate whether selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) can stimulate bone formation and inhibit the bone loss involved in hyperglycemia-induced osteoporosis. Methods: Rat osteoblastic UMR-106 cells were used for in vitro studies and female Sprague–Dawley rats were used for type 2 diabetes-associated osteoporosis in vivo study. Results: In vitro studies show that SeNPs promote osteoblast differentiation via modulating alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and promoting calcium nodule formation and collagen content. The authors also provide evidence regarding the involvement of the BMP-2/MAPKs/β-catenin pathway in preventing diabetic osteoporosis. Further, in vivo and ex vivo studies suggested that SeNPs can preserve mechanical and microstructural properties of bone. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence regarding the therapeutic benefits of SeNPs in preventing diabetes-associated bone fragility.

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