Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) onset has been associated with diet, among other environmental factors. Adipose tissue and the gut have an impact on β-cell biology, influencing their function. Dietary ingredients affect fatty acid profiles of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and plasma, as well as SCFAs production after microbial fermentation. Pistachios are a rich source of oleic acid, known for their anti-inflammatory actions and favorably affect gut microbiota composition. The purpose of the study was to examine plasma and VAT fatty acids profiles as well as fecal SCFAs after dietary intervention with pistachio nuts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Plasma and VAT fatty acids were determined by GC-MS and SCFAs by HPLC. After 4 weeks of pistachio consumption, MUFA and especially oleic acid were increased in plasma and VAT of diabetic rats while PUFA, total ω6 and especially 18:2ω6, were decreased. Lactic acid, the major end-product of beneficial intestinal microorganisms, such as lactobacilli, was elevated in healthy groups, while decreased levels of isovaleric acid were recorded in healthy and diabetic groups following the pistachio diet. Our results reveal possible beneficial relationships between pistachio nut consumption, lipid profiles and intestinal health in the disease state of T1D.

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